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The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Arthur Marwick in New Society Within the English revolution of the See all 3 images .. If you want to get a good, well-written dose of British history, this is the book to read.
Table of contents
- Psychology in Everyday Life
- Washington and the French & Indian War · George Washington's Mount Vernon
- Site Index
- Why did Thomas Cook collapse after 178 years in business?
A large number of troops were sent to the scene and the men were forced to surrender. The commander-in-chief, General Thomas Fairfax , ordered Lockyer to be executed. Lockyer's funeral on Sunday 29th April, , proved to be a dramatic reminder of the strength of the Leveller organization in London.
Led by six trumpeters, about people reportedly accompanied the corpse. Many wore ribbons - black for mourning and sea-green to publicize their Leveller allegiance.
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A company of women brought up the rear, testimony to the active female involvement in the Leveller movement. If the reports can be believed there were more mourners for Trooper Lockyer than there had been for the martyred Colonel Thomas Rainsborough the previous autumn. John Lilburne continued to campaign against the rule of Oliver Cromwell. According to a Royalist newspaper at the time: "He Cromwell and the Levellers can as soon combine as fire and water The Levellers aim being at pure democracy They blast us with all the scandals and false reports their wit or malice could invent against us By these arts are they now fastened in their powers.
David Petegorsky , the author of Left-Wing Democracy in the English Civil War has pointed out: "The Levellers clearly saw, that equality must replace privilege as the dominant theme of social relationships; for a State that is divided into rich and poor, or a system that excludes certain classes from privileges it confers on others, violates that equality to which every individual has a natural claim.
Psychology in Everyday Life
In May another Leveller-inspired mutiny broke out at Salisbury. Thompson escaped only to be killed a few days later near the Diggers community at Wellingborough. After being imprisoned in Burford Church with the other mutineers, three other leaders, "Private Church, Corporal Perkins and Cornett Thompson", were executed by Cromwell's forces in the churchyard. Oliver Cromwell was asked by Parliament to take control of Ireland. The country had caused serious problems for English generals in the past so Cromwell was careful to make painstaking preparations before he left.
Cromwell ensured that the wage arrears of his army were paid, and that he was guaranteed sufficient financial provision by parliament. On 15th August , Cromwell arrived in Ireland and took control of an army of 12, men. We are here to carry on the great work against the barbarous and blood-thirsty Irish Cromwell, like nearly all Puritans "had been inflamed against the Irish Catholics by the true and false allegations of the atrocities which they had committed against English Protestants settlers during the Irish Catholic rebellion of Even the philosopher, Francis Bacon , and the poet John Milton , who "believed passionately in liberty and human dignity", shared the view that "the Irish were culturally so inferior that their subordination was natural and necessary.
Cromwell's first action on reaching Ireland was to forbid any plunder or pillage - an order that could not have been enforced with an unpaid army. Two men were hanged for plundering to convince the soldiers he was serious about this order. To control Dublin's northern approaches Cromwell needed to take the port of Drogheda. Once in his hands he could feel confident of controlling the whole of the northern route from Dublin to Londonderry. On 3rd September, around 12, men and supporting vessels had arrived outside the town.
Surrounding the whole town was a massive wall, 22 feet high and 6 feet thick.
Washington and the French & Indian War · George Washington's Mount Vernon
Sir Arthur Aston , who had been fighting for the royalists during the English Civil War , was the governor of Drogheda. On 10th September, Cromwell advised Aston to surrender. If you refuse Cromwell had four times as many men as Aston and was better supplied with weapons, stores and equipment. Cromwell's proposal was rejected and the garrison opened fire with what weapons they had. Cromwell's reply was to attack the city wall and by nightfall two breaches had been made. The following day Cromwell led his soldiers into Drogheda.
Aston and some soldiers climbed Mill Mount. Cromwell's troops surrounded the men and it was usually the custom to allow them to surrender. However, Cromwell gave the order to kill them all.
Aston's head was beaten in with his own wooden leg. Cromwell instructed his men to kill all the soldiers in the town. About eighty men had taken refuge in St Peter's Church. It was set on fire and all the men were killed. All the priests that were captured were also slaughtered. Cromwell sent a letter to William Lenthall , the Speaker of the House of Commons : "I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgment of God upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands in so much innocent blood; and that it will tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which are the satisfactory grounds for such actions, which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret.
The response from Parliament was that they were unwilling to pay for a long war. He was told to take control of the large estates owned by Catholics and to sell or rent it to Protestants. This money was to be used to pay his soldiers.
Cromwell decided that the best way to bring a quick end to the war was to carry out another massacre. After an eight days' siege at Wexford , around 1, troops, priests and civilians were butchered. Hugh Peter , a chaplain to the Parliamentary army and a passionate anti-Catholic, was with Cromwell in Ireland.
He reported that the town was now available for English Protestant colonists to settle. During the next few years of bloodshed it is estimated that about a third of the population was either killed or died of starvation. The majority of Roman Catholics who owned land had it taken away from them and were removed to the barren province of Connacht.
Why did Thomas Cook collapse after 178 years in business?
Catholic boys and girls were shipped to Barbados and sold to the planters as slaves. The land taken from the Catholics by Cromwell was given to the Protestant soldiers who had taken part in the campaign. On 9th March, , the House of Lords was abolished. The Levellers continued to campaign for an increase in the number of people who could vote. On 20th September, , Parliament passed a law introducing government censorship. It now required a licence for the publication of any book, pamphlet, treatise or sheets of news.
As Pauline Gregg has pointed out that the situation was little different "from the censorship they had been fighting in the King's time". On 24th October, , Lilburne was charged with high treason. The trial began the following day. The prosecution read out extracts from Lilburne's pamphlets but the jury was not convinced and he was found not guilty. There were great celebrations outside the court and his acquittal was marked with bonfires. A medal was struck in his honour, inscribed with the words: "John Lilburne saved by the power of the Lord and the integrity of the jury who are judge of law as well of fact".
On 8th November, all four men were released. Cromwell was also having problems with Gerrard Winstanley , the leader of the group that became known as the Diggers. Winstanley began arguing that all land belonged to the community rather than to separate individuals. In the pamphlet he wrote: "In the beginning of time God made the earth. Not one word was spoken at the beginning that one branch of mankind should rule over another, but selfish imaginations did set up one man to teach and rule over another.
Winstanley claimed that the scriptures threatened "misery to rich men" and that they "shall be turned out of all, and their riches given to a people that will bring forth better fruit, and such as they have oppressed shall inherit the land. As John Gurney has pointed out, Winstanley argued: "The poor should not just be seen as an object of pity, for the part they played in upholding the curse had also to be addressed.
Private property, and the poverty, inequality and exploitation attendant upon it, was, like the corruption of religion, kept in being not only by the rich but also by those who worked for them. Winstanley claimed that God would punish the poor if they did not take action: "Therefore you dust of the earth, that are trod under foot, you poor people, that makes both scholars and rich men, your oppressors by your labours If you labour the earth, and work for others that live at ease, and follows the ways of the flesh by your labours, eating the bread which you get by the sweat of your brows, not their own.
Know this, that the hand of the Lord shall break out upon such hireling labourer, and you shall perish with the covetous rich man.
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On Sunday 1st April, , Winstanley, William Everard , and a small group of about 30 or 40 men and women started digging and sowing vegetables on the wasteland of St George's Hill in the parish of Walton. They were mainly labouring men and their families, and they confidently hoped that five thousand others would join them.
They also stated that they "intended to plough up the ground and sow it with seed corn". Most of these were local inhabitants. Local landowners were very disturbed by these developments. According to one historian, John F. Harrison : "They were repeatedly attacked and beaten; their crops were uprooted, their tools destroyed, and their rough houses. I was by birth a gentleman.
You must cut these people in pieces or they will cut you in pieces.
Instructions were given for the Diggers to be beaten up and for their houses, crops and tools to be destroyed. These tactics were successful and within a year all the Digger communities in England had been wiped out. A number of Diggers were indicted at the Surrey quarter sessions and five were imprisoned for just over a month in the White Lion prison in Southwark. Cromwell also had problems with the Ranters. In this pamphlet he claimed that "the Levellers men-levellers which is and who indeed are but shadows of most terrible, yet great and glorious good things to come".
People who did not own property would have "treasure in heaven". His main message was that God, the "mighty leveller" would return to earth and punish those who did not share their wealth. Coppe argued for freedom, equality, community and universal peace. He told the wealthy that they would be punished for their lack of charity towards the poor: "The rust of your silver, I say, shall eat your flesh as it were fire Howl, howl, ye nobles, howl honourable, howl ye rich men for the miseries that are coming upon you. Laurence Clarkson , had been a preacher in the New Model Army who wrote a pamphlet he defined the "oppressors" as the "nobility and gentry" and the oppressed as the "yeoman farmer" and the "tradesman".
Barry Coward , the author of The Stuart Age: England argues that the activities of the Ranters created a "moral panic" because their activities were "often violent and anti-social" and frightened conservative opinion into reaction. The night of the battle, Smith used string, cloth, and powder to create the illusion of two thousand matchlock muskets firing to the west of Limbach. In the pitch black night, the Turks mistook the flashes of light for an Austrian attack.